Read Kapital Buku 2: Proses Sirkulasi Kapital by Karl Marx Free Online
Book Title: Kapital Buku 2: Proses Sirkulasi Kapital|
The author of the book: Karl Marx
Edition: Hasta Mitra–Ultimus–Institute for Global Justice
Date of issue: 2006
Format files: PDF
The size of the: 8.50 MB
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So far we have considered part of the working day when the worker simply offsets the value that the capitalist pays him, as an constant magnitude, it is invariable reality in production conditions. Beyond this necessary time, work could be extended by two, three, four, five, six, etc. hours. According to the greatness of this extension, the rate of surplus value and the length of the day varied. If the necessary labor-time was constant, the whole day was variable otherwise.
The shortening of the necessary labor as well correspond to the extension of the surplus labor, or some of the time that the worker consumes far in reality for himself, would turn into working time for the capitalist. The limits of the day would not be changed, but its work division necessary and surplus labor.
Moreover, the duration of surplus labor is fixed as soon as data are the limits of the day and the daily value of labor power. If it is five shillings - Gold sum which incorporated ten hours of work when the worker has to work ten hours a day to compensate for the value of its force paid daily by the capitalist, or to produce an equivalent keeps it needs for its daily maintenance. The value of these daily subsistence determines the value of its strength , and the value thereof determines the daily duration of his necessary work.
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Read information about the authorIn 1818, Karl Marx, descended from a long line of rabbis, was born in Prussian Rhineland. Marx's' father converted to Protestantism shortly before Karl's birth. Educated at the Universities of Bonn, Jena, and Berlin, Marx founded the Socialist newspaper Vorwarts in 1844 in Paris. After being expelled from France at the urging of the Prussian government, which "banished" Marx in absentia, Marx studied economics in Brussels. He and Engels founded the Communist League in 1847 and published the Communist Manifesto. After the failed revolution of 1848 in Germany, in which Marx participated, he eventually wound up in London. Marx worked as foreign correspondent for several U.S. publications. His Das Kapital came out in three volumes (1867, 1885 and 1894). Marx organized the International and helped found the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Although Marx was not religious, Bertrand Russell later remarked, "His belief that there is a cosmic force called Dialectical Materialism which governs human history independently of human volitions, is mere mythology" (Portraits from Memory, 1956). Marx once quipped, "All I know is that I am not a Marxist" (according to Engels in a letter to C. Schmidt; see Who's Who in Hell by Warren Allen Smith). D. 1883.
Marx began co-operating with Bruno Bauer on editing Hegel's Philosophy of Religion in 1840. Marx was also engaged in writing his doctoral thesis, The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature, which he completed in 1841. It was described as "a daring and original piece of work in which Marx set out to show that theology must yield to the superior wisdom of philosophy": the essay was controversial, particularly among the conservative professors at the University of Berlin. Marx decided, instead, to submit his thesis to the more liberal University of Jena, whose faculty awarded him his PhD in April 1841. As Marx and Bauer were both atheists, in March 1841 they began plans for a journal entitled Archiv des Atheismus (Atheistic Archives), but it never came to fruition.
Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history. Marx is typically cited, with Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, as one of the three principal architects of modern social science.
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